The advent of the automotive industry marked the introduction of electro-mobility. Electric vehicles were the first automobiles. For instance, the Electric Carriage & Wagon Company created a fleet of electric taxis that entered service in New York City in 1897. The first electric car to travel at 100 km/h did so in 1899. Research and development (R&D) for electro-mobility has become more critical during the 1990s due to worries about rising emissions and the brisk expansion of emerging economies.
Additionally, the fluctuating price of crude oil and concerns about future scarcity drove businesses and government agencies to look into other alternatives and support the electrification of vehicles on the roadways. Global mobility will continue to rise in the future. Over 60 million road vehicles were sold in 2011.
The global electric automotive battery market is experiencing significant growth due to the increasing adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and the growing demand for clean and sustainable transportation. The development of the electric automotive battery market is driven by factors such as government support for the adoption of EVs, declining battery costs, and advancements in battery technology.
In recent years, the electric automotive battery market has seen an increase in investment and development activity as major automakers and battery manufacturers seek to improve the performance and efficiency of batteries for electric vehicles. The development of more advanced battery materials and technologies, such as solid-state batteries, is expected to further drive the growth of the electric automotive battery market in the coming years.
The Asia-Pacific region is the largest market for electric automotive batteries, driven by the growing demand for EVs in countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea. Europe and North America are also significant markets for electric automotive batteries, with growing demand for EVs and supportive government policies.
In addition to the automotive industry, the electric battery market is also driven by the growth of renewable energy and the increasing use of batteries for energy storage. The development of these markets is expected to further drive demand for electric automotive batteries in the coming years.
Overall, the electric automotive battery market is expected to continue its growth in the coming years, driven by the increasing adoption of EVs, renewable energy growth, and battery technology advancements.
There is currently a wide range of different vehicle concepts covering automotive needs:
- Micro Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are also referred to as start-stop systems because the engine turns off when the vehicle stops and starts automatically when the car is powered,
- Mild Hybrid Vehicles, which include the storage and re-use of braking energy
- Total Hybrid Electric Vehicles which use the electrical storage system for relatively short distances,
- Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), which combine the advantages of an electric vehicle with those of a vehicle using a combustion engine,
- Electric Vehicles (EVs) are operated with electrical power only.
Micro Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Micro Hybrid Electric Vehicles (mHEV) are hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) designed to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Unlike full HEVs, mHEVs do not have a pure electric driving mode and rely primarily on the internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion.
In an mHEV, a tiny battery and electric motor assist the ICE and capture energy from regenerative braking. This energy is stored in the battery and used for auxiliary power systems, such as air conditioning, lighting, and radio, reducing the load on the ICE. This results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Belt-driven alternator starters (BAS) – a type of mHEV that use a belt-driven alternator to provide electrical assistance to the ICE and capture energy during regenerative braking.Start-Stop systems – an mHEV that automatically turns off the ICE when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts when the driver presses the accelerator pedal.
Mild Hybrid Vehicles
Mild hybrid vehicles use a small electric motor and a battery to help the internal combustion engine work better and get better gas mileage. Unlike full hybrids, mild hybrids cannot run solely on electric power, and the electric motor provides only a minor boost to the engine, hence the term “mild.” Most of the time, these systems use a belt-driven starter generator to collect energy when the car slows down and boost it when it speeds up. They may also allow the engine to shut down temporarily at stop lights, improving fuel efficiency.
Total Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Total hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) move with the help of both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor powered by a battery pack. The electric motor and the gasoline engine work together to provide the power needed to drive the vehicle, with the electric motor often used for low-speed driving and the internal combustion engine kicking in for higher speeds and heavy loads. The engine can recharge the battery pack or use regenerative braking. The electric motor acts as a generator, turning the car’s kinetic energy into electricity to charge the battery. This makes HEVs more fuel-efficient and lower emissions than conventional gasoline vehicles. Some HEVs can also run solely on electric power for short distances, reducing emissions and fuel consumption.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are a type of hybrid electric vehicle that can run on an internal combustion engine and electric power from a rechargeable battery. The battery can be charged by plugging the car into a wall outlet or a charging station, which is why the term “plug-in” is usMost plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have bigger batteries than traditional hybrids, so they can go farther on electric power alone before the gas engine kicks in. combustion engine kicks in. This results in lower emissions and improved fuel efficiency, especially in urban driving, where electric power can be used for most trips. PHEVs also have the advantage that they can use gasoline for longer trips. This removes the worry about running out of gas and makes them a better choice for many drivers.
Electric Vehicles (EVs)
Electric vehicles (EVs) run solely on electricity stored in a rechargeable battery. They have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine and produce zero emissions while driving. The battery can be recharged from an external source, such as a wall outlet or public charging station, and the time required to charge the battery entirely depends on the size of the battery and the charging station’s power. EVs offer several advantages over conventional gasoline vehicles, including lower operating costs due to the lower cost of electricity than gasoline, improved efficiency, and reduced environmental impact. They also offer smooth and quiet operation and instant torque from the electric motor for quick acceleration. However, the range of EVs is currently limited compared to gasoline vehicles, and the time required to recharge the battery can still be a drawback for some drivers.
Battery Energy Storage
A method for storing electrical energy that relies on electrochemical charge/discharge reactions is known as a rechargeable battery. Chemical energy is utilised in direct proportion to the amount of electrical energy stored in a battery.
Rechargeable batteries come in various designs and sizes, ranging from tiny button cells to enormous batteries used as backup energy storage in industrial applications. The four battery technology families that now rule the market have led to various chemical combinations being employed frequently: Nickel, Lithium, Lead, and Sodium.
Energy can be stored in different forms as compressed air (pneumatic), flywheels (kinematic), thermal storage (heat), and hydrogen (chemical). Battery Energy Storage (“BES”) systems should be distinguished from other storage devices for several reasons. First and foremost, they are highly flexible and can be adapted to high-power and high-energy applications. When correctly selected or tailored, they are also highly efficient both during use and on standby. BES systems increase road vehicle applications’ overall efficiency– current and future.
There are two batteries in a hybrid electric vehicle, including a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle—a 12-volt battery and a hybrid battery, just like in a car with a combustion engine.
Both batteries function fundamentally in a similar manner. They both have a positive and negative electrode submerged in an ion-rich fluid called an electrolyte. Ions, or atoms with an electrical charge, interact intricately with electrons to produce electricity.
The 12-volt battery produces enough electricity to start the car. However, the hybrid electric battery has enough power to propel the vehicle.
The second thing to understand is that a hybrid electric battery is a battery pack that contains and links several separate cells rather than a single battery or cell. For instance, the battery pack in the Toyota Highlander Hybrid comprises 240 cells. The real driving force behind the car is the sum of all its cell powers.
Batteries made of nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)
Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that uses a hydrogen-absorbing alloy as the positive electrode (cathode) and nickel hydroxide as the negative electrode (anode). They were first commercialised in the 1990s and have become a popular alternative to traditional nickel-cadmium (NiCad) batteries.
One of the main advantages of NiMH batteries over NiCad batteries is their higher energy density, which allows for a higher capacity in a smaller size and lighter weight. This makes them well-suited for applications where weight and space are at a premium, such as portable electronic devices and electric vehicles.
Another advantage of NiMH batteries is their relatively low environmental impact, as they do not contain cadmium, a toxic heavy metal that can cause ecological damage. NiMH batteries are also more resistant to the “memory effect” that can reduce the capacity of NiCad batteries over time.
However, NiMH batteries are typically more expensive than NiCad batteries and have a lower self-discharge rate, meaning they lose more energy when not in use. They are also more sensitive to overcharging and over-discharging, which can reduce their lifespan and performance.
In summary, NiMH batteries are a popular alternative to NiCad batteries, offering higher energy density, lower environmental impact, higher cost and lower self-discharge rate. They are widely used in various applications, including portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy systems.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) Batteries
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are rechargeable batteries that have become widely used in various applications, including consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and renewable energy systems. They have several advantages over other types of batteries, including higher energy density, longer lifespan, and lower self-discharge rate.
Li-ion batteries consist of a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte, with lithium ions moving from the anode to the cathode during discharge and back during charging. They offer high energy and power density, so they can store a lot of energy in a small package and deliver it quickly when needed.
One of the main advantages of Li-ion batteries is their relatively low self-discharge rate, meaning they lose relatively little energy when not used. This makes them well-suited for applications where the battery needs to be stored for long periods between uses.
However, Li-ion batteries can be expensive and more sensitive to high temperatures, overcharging, and over-discharging than other batteries. Handling and using Li-ion batteries properly ensures their safe and effective operation.
Overall, Li-ion batteries are an essential part of the energy storage landscape. Their widespread use has been a critical factor in the growth of renewable energy and electric vehicles.
Global Electric Automotive Battery Industry Outlook
According to a recent report, the global electric automotive battery market was valued at approximately USD 21 billion in 2020 and is expected to reach a value of USD 54 billion by 2026, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17.3% during the forecast period from 2021 to 2026.
In terms of volume, the global electric automotive battery market is expected to reach over 100 GWh by 2026, driven by the increasing adoption of electric vehicles and the growth of the renewable energy sector.
The Asia-Pacific region is expected to continue to dominate the electric automotive battery market, accounting for over 60% of the global market share by 2026. China is expected to be the largest market for electric automotive batteries in the Asia-Pacific region, driven by the growing demand for electric vehicles and the government’s supportive policies for adopting EVs.
In terms of battery type, the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery segment is expected to dominate the electric automotive battery market, accounting for over 80% of the market share by 2026, driven by its high energy density, long cycle life, and relatively low cost.
Overall, the growth of the electric automotive battery market is expected to be driven by factors such as the increasing adoption of electric vehicles, advancements in battery technology, and supportive government policies.
The global electric automotive battery industry outlook is positive, driven by the increasing demand for electric vehicles and the growth of the renewable energy sector.
The electric vehicle market is expected to continue its growth, driven by factors such as government support for the adoption of EVs, declining battery costs, and advancements in battery technology. As more consumers adopt electric vehicles, the demand for electric automotive batteries is expected to increase, driving the industry’s growth.
In addition, the growth of the renewable energy sector is expected to drive demand for electric automotive batteries, as they are increasingly being used for energy storage. The development of more advanced battery materials and technologies, such as solid-state batteries, is expected to further drive the growth of the electric automotive battery industry in the coming years.
The Asia-Pacific region is expected to continue to be the largest market for electric automotive batteries, driven by the growing demand for EVs in countries such as China, Japan, and South Korea. Europe and North America are also expected to be significant markets for electric automotive batteries, with growing demand for EVs and supportive government policies.
Overall, the outlook for the global electric automotive battery industry is positive, driven by the increasing demand for electric vehicles, the growth of the renewable energy sector, and advancements in battery technology.
Electric Vehicle Trends: Current and Future
The electric vehicle (EV) market is experiencing significant growth, driven by declining battery costs, advancements in battery technology, and increasing consumer awareness about the benefits of EVs. Some of the current and future trends in the electric vehicle market include:
- Growing Adoption of Electric Vehicles: The demand for electric vehicles is increasing globally, driven by government support for the adoption of EVs, declining battery costs, and advancements in battery technology. As more consumers adopt EVs, the demand for electric vehicle charging infrastructure is also expected to increase.
- Advancements in Battery Technology: The development of more advanced battery materials and technologies, such as solid-state batteries, is expected to improve the performance and efficiency of electric vehicles and further drive the growth of the EV market.
- Increased Focus on Sustainability: There is an increasing focus on sustainability, and electric vehicles are a vital solution to reducing emissions and improving air quality. Governments worldwide are implementing policies to support EV adoption, and consumers are becoming more conscious of their environmental impact.
- Expansion of Charging Infrastructure: To support the growth of the EV market, there is a need for the expansion of charging infrastructure. Governments and private companies are investing in the development of charging networks. New technologies, such as fast-charging and wireless charging, are being developed to make charging more convenient for consumers.
- Growing Demand for Autonomous Electric Vehicles: The demand for autonomous electric vehicles is expected to grow in the future, driven by advancements in autonomous technology and the increasing focus on sustainability. Autonomous EVs are expected to improve safety, reduce emissions, and provide consumers with a more convenient driving experience.
Overall, the electric vehicle market is expected to continue its growth in the coming years, driven by factors such as declining battery costs, advancements in battery technology, and increasing consumer awareness about the benefits of EVs.